The Open-loop gain called the Gain Bandwidth Product, or (GBP) can be very high and is a measure of how good an amplifier is.

Very high GBP makes an operational amplifier circuit unstable as a micro volt input signal causes the output voltage to swing into saturation.

By the use of a suitable feedback resistor, ( RĘ ) the overall gain of the amplifier can be accurately controlled.

Differential and Summing Amplifiers

By adding more input resistors to either the inverting or non-inverting inputs Voltage Adders or Summers can be made.

Voltage follower op-amps can be added to the inputs of Differential amplifiers to produce high impedance Instrumentation amplifiers.

The Differential Amplifier produces an output that is proportional to the difference between the 2 input voltages.

Differentiator and Integrator Operational Amplifier Circuits

The Integrator Amplifier produces an output that is the mathematical operation of integration.

The Differentiator Amplifier produces an output that is the mathematical operation of differentiation.

Both the Integrator and Differentiator Amplifiers have a resistor and capacitor connected across the op-amp and are affected by its RC time constant.

In their basic form, Differentiator Amplifiers suffer from instability and noise but additional components can be added to reduce the overall closed-loop gain.

AMPLIFIERS NON-INVERTING AND INVERTING AMPLIFIERS
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